Effect of irrigation schedules on productivity, quality and water use of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) under staggered sowing in Northwest India
Keywords:Indian mustard, Irrigation, Protein, Seed yield, Sowing date, Water-use efficiency
A field experiment was conducted during the winter (rabi) seasons of 2019–20 and 2020–21 at the Guru Kashi University, Talwandi Sabo, Bathinda (Punjab), to study the effect of irrigation schedules on different growth, yieldattributing characters, yield, quality and water use in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.] in relation to sowing time. Results revealed that, early-sown crop, i.e. 10 October, recorded the higher growth parameters, viz. plant height, dry-matter accumulation, primary branches/plants, secondary branches/plant, and yield-attributing characters, viz. siliquae/plant, seeds/siliqua, siliqua length and 1,000-seed weight of Indian mustard. The crop sown on 10 October gave the highest seed yield (1449 kg/ha) which was significantly higher than the crop sown on 25 October (1,171 kg/ha) and 10 November (643 kg/ha). Oil yield, nitrogen content and protein content were also significantly higher in 10 October sown crop. Early-sown crop, i.e. 10 October, resulted in the 21.2 and 119.5% higher water-use efficiency (7.55 kg/ha/mm) than 25 October (6.23 kg/ha mm) and 10 November (3.44 kg/ha/mm) sown crop. Application of 3 irrigations, viz. at branching, flowering and siliqua-formation stages, resulted in higher plant height, dry matter, primary and secondary branches/plant, siliquae/plant, 1,000-seed weight, stover yield and harvest index in Indian mustard. Three irrigations at branching, flowering and siliqua-formation stages resulted in significantly higher seed yield (1,658 kg/ha), oil content (42.2%), oil yield (699.7 kg) and protein content (22.3%). This treatment resulted in the 23.3% higher water-use efficiency (6.50 kg/ha/mm) than the control (5.27 kg/ha/mm).
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