Effect of enriched composts and establishment methods on crop growth and nutrient concentration of rice (Oryza sativa) in trans-Gangetic plains of India
Keywords:Crop establishment, Enriched compost, Nutrient, Rice, Micronutrient, Yield
A field experiment was conducted during the rainy (kharif) seasons of 2018 and 2019 at the ICAR-Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, to study the effect of crop-establishment methods and enriched organic nutrient sources on growth and productivity of ‘Pusa Basmati 1509’ rice (Oryza sativa L.). The experiment was laid out in splitplot design with 3 replications. The treatments comprised 2 main plot treatments, viz. aerobic rice (AR) and conventional transplanted (CT) rice, and 5 subplot treatments, viz. control (no fertilizer), 100% recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF)–100% mineral fertilization), 50% P through P enriched compost + 50% P through diammonium phosphate (DAP), 50% N through N-enriched compost + 50% N through urea and DAP and 100% organic (through N-enriched compost and P-enriched compost). The transplanted rice gave significantly higher grain yield (4.3 and 4.5 t/ha), straw yield (7.2 and 7.5 t/ha), plant height (97.8 and 99.1 cm), number of tillers (369.4 and 375.1), macro (1.4 and 1.3%-N, 0.14 and 0.15% -P, 0.27 and 0.28% K) and micro-nutrient concentration (70.5 and 76.8 ppm-Fe 22.2 and 22.9 ppm-Mn 24.1 and 24.7 ppm-Zn 10.1 and 10.5 ppm-Cu) in grain compared to aerobic rice. Enriched N compost having 50% N through N-enriched compost + 50% N through urea and DAP resulted in significantly higher grain yield (4.85 and 5.13 t/ha) than the other treatments except enriched P compost including 50% P through P-enriched compost + 50% P through DAP and these 2 treatments were at par in both the years. The 100% RDF resulted in more grain yield than 100% organic treatment, though differences were nonsignificant in both the years. Treatment of 50% N through N-enriched compost + 50% N through urea and DAP also resulted in taller plants, more tillers/m2 , higher macro and micro-nutrient concentration in grain than the other treatments. Hence, conventional transplanting of rice along with integrated application of enriched compost and inorganic fertilizer may be recommended to farmers for getting higher growth, productivity and better nutritional security.
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