Agro-tactics for reducing carbon footprint in agricultural production systems: A review
Keywords:Conservation Agriculture, Carbon footprint, Crop diversification, LCA, Precision-input management
Over the last half-century, global attention has focused on climate change, particularly changes in air temperature. Concerns about the sustainability of the Earth’s ecosystems and other human life on the land are increasing along with population growth, rising surface temperature, and higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agriculture is responsible for ~18% of total GHG emissions. Therefore, mitigating the effects of climate change by reducing GHG emissions is essential and can be achieved by careful evaluation of the carbon footprint (CF). The goal of this study was to gain a better understanding of the changes in CF due to agricultural management practices. Carbon footprint is a popular concept in agro-environmental sciences owing to its role in the environmental impact assessments related to alternative solutions and global climate change. The CF of agricultural products is one of the most crucial indicators to assess the effectiveness and long-term viability of agricultural products. Soil-moisture content, soil temperature, porosity, and anoxic conditions are some of the soil properties directly related to GHG emissions. The GHG emissions are also affected by different land-use changes, soil types, and agricultural management practices. Globally, better soil-management techniques can alter atmospheric GHG emissions. Therefore, the relation between photosynthesis and GHG emissions is impacted by agricultural management practices, especially focusing on soil and related systems. When maximizing crop productivity, environmental factors, land use, and agricultural practices all should be considered in CF management. The current review highlights the importance of CF and its role in maintaining the sustainability of agricultural systems.
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