Productivity and profitability of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan)-based intercropping systems under diverse nutrient management practices in rainfed condition
Keywords:Dehydrogenase, INM, Pigeonpea intercropping, Rainfed, Microbial population
A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm, Acharya Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Ayodhya, Uttar Pradesh, on silty loam soil during the rainy (kharif) seasons of 2014–2018, to study the productivity and profitability of pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.]-based intercropping under divers nutrient management in rainfed condition. The experiment consisted of 3 intercropping, viz. C1, pigeonpea sole; C2 , pigeonpea + blackgram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper]; and C3 , pigeonpea + maize (Zea mays L.); and 4 practices nutrient management, viz. N1 , recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF); N2 , RDF + phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) + Rhizobium; N3 , RDF + PSB + Rhizobium + FYM @ 3 t/ha; and N4 , RDF + PSB + Rhizobium + FYM @ 3 t/ha + Harit-Vardan @ 5 kg/ha. The experiment was laid out in factorial randomized-block design with 3 replications. Results revealed that, pigeonpea + blackgram system, showed higher yield of pigeonpea (1.71 t/ha), pigeonpea-equivalent yield (2.29 t/ha), rain water-use efficiency, (5.84 kg/ha-mm), organic carbon (0.33 %), available N (164.92 kg/ha), P (18.74 kg/ha), K (245.08 kg/ha) and S (11.30 ppm) and microbial population in cfu/g dry soil, and dehydrogenase activity (17.49 μg TPF/g/h), net returns (61.15 × 103 `/ha), benefit: cost ratio (2.06) than pigeonpea sole and pigeonpea + maize systems. The combined application of RDF + Rhizobium + PSB + FYM @ 3 t/ha + Harit-Vardan @ 5 kg/ha proved effective and resulted in significantly higher pigeonpea grain yield (1.65 t/ ha), pigeonpea-equivalent yield (2.16 t/ha), rain water-use efficiency (4.94 kg/ha-mm), organic carbon (0.34%), available N (161.59 kg/ha), P (18.37 kg/ha), K (241.96 kg/ha) and S (11.92 ppm) and microbial population and dehydrogenase activity (15.56 μg TPF/g/h) and net returns as compared to RDF alone. However, higher net returns (55.4 × 103 `/ha) per rupee investment were recorded in combined application of RDF + Rhizobium + PSB + FYM @ 3 t/ha + Harit-Vardan @ 5 kg/ha. The pigeonpea + blackgram intercropping and combined application of FYM @ 3 t/ha along with RDF + Rhizobium + PSB improved the organic carbon and increased available N, P and K content in the soil over initial soil value.