Energy budgeting, sensitivity analysis and greenhouse gas emission from rice (Oryza sativa) production system: A case study from the coastal ecosystem of Goa, India
Keywords:Energy efficiency, Greenhouse gas, Rice, Sensitivity analysis, Technical efficiency
In recent years, energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are of major concern across the globe. In this context, using data envelopment analysis, a study was carried out during 2019 and 2020 to determine the energy-usage pattern and efficiency of rice (Oryza sativa L.) farmers in the coastal state. The results showed that, rice-production systems had energy-use efficiency, energy productivity, net energy, and human-energy profitability of 2.40, 0.16 MJ/kg, 15,728 MJ/ha and 42.8 respectively. Of the 30 farmers, 5 and 21 were judged to be efficient based on technical and pure technical efficiency, respectively. The mean scale efficiency of inefficient farmers was 0.68 which indicated scope for refining agricultural practices to input use. Nitrogen, farmyard manure, and seeds had a positive impact on crop yield, whereas labour and diesel had negative impact on both crop yield and energy, according to the econometric model. The main non-renewable inputs contributing to GHG emissions were found to be nitrogen fertilizer (72.1 kg CO2 eq./ha), fuel (68.5 kg CO2 eq./ha), and machinery (68.9 kg CO2 eq./ha). Indirect (81.7%) and non-renewable (73.8%) energy consumption was found higher. Our findings indicated that, farmers in this region should use conservation tillage and better crop-management strategies to save energy and minimize GHG emissions.